Periodontal diseases are inflammatory disorders that may lead to the destruction of periodontal tissues and eventually tooth loss.
One of the major lifestyle-related risk factors for these diseases is smoking 1. It is reported in several in vitro and in vivo studies that smoking can induce oxidative stress 2-5, increase inflammatory responses and reduce the immune response to microorganisms 6,7, and ultimately alter the structure of the mucosal epithelium at the surface of the gingiva 8-10. The risk for a destructive periodontal disease can be 5- to 20-fold greater for a smoker compared with a person who has never smoked 11.
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- D'Aiuto, F. et al. Oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and severe periodontitis. J Dent Res 89, 1241-1246 (2010)
- Chapple, I. L. et al. The prevalence of inflammatory periodontitis is negatively associated with serum antioxidant concentrations. J Nutr 137, 657-664 (2007)
- Tsai, C. C. et al. Lipid peroxidation: a possible role in the induction and progression of chronic periodontitis. J Periodontal Res 40, 378-384 (2005)
- Carnevali, S. et al. Cigarette smoke extract induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in human lung fibroblasts. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 284, L955-963 (2003)
- Genco, R. J. Current view of risk factors for periodontal diseases. J Periodontol 67, 1041-1049 (1996)
- James, J. A. et al. Effects of tobacco products on the attachment and growth of periodontal ligament fibroblasts. J Periodontol 70, 518-525 (1999)
- Coppe, J. P. et al. A role for fibroblasts in mediating the effects of tobacco-induced epithelial cell growth and invasion. Molecular cancer research : MCR 6, 1085-1098 (2008)
- Semlali, A. et al. Whole cigarette smoke promotes human gingival epithelial cell apoptosis and inhibits cell repair processes. J Periodontal Res 46, 533-541 (2011)
- Villar, C. C. et al. Smoking influences on the thickness of marginal gingival epithelium. Pesqui Odontol Bras 17, 41-45 (2003)
- Bergstrom, J. Tobacco smoking and chronic destructive periodontal disease. Odontology 92, 1-8 (2004)