Respiratory diseases

Smoking has been causally linked to numerous diseases, especially those of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems, over the past 50 years1. In the developed world, exposure to tobacco smoke is the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)2, a major and increasing global health problem characterized by persistent and progressive airflow limitation associated with an enhanced chronic inflammatory response that may lead to parenchymal tissue destruction and emphysema3.

In susceptible individuals, cigarette smoke (CS) rapidly provokes an array of biological responses, including apoptosis, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which, with sustained exposure, lead to non-resolving inflammation and emphysematous changes4.


  1. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (US), Office on Smoking and Health. The Health Consequences of Smoking-50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General Reports of the Surgeon General (2014).
  2. Pauwels, R. A. & Rabe, K. F. Burden and clinical features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Lancet 364, 613-620 (2004).
  3. GOLD. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive disease (updated 2014) (2014).
  4. Tam, A. & Sin, D. D. Pathobiologic mechanisms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The Medical clinics of North America 96, 681-698 (2012).

Respiratory diseases Results

Please select a Study (directly above) to view the associated Tissue tabs

Please select a Study, then Tissue to view the associated Endpoint tabs