The biology of a system responding to a well characterized exposure can be studied by measuring specific endpoints.

The correct choice and measurement of sets of endpoints enable the understanding of biological pathways, defined as step-by-step explanations of causal processes linking specific exposures to phenomena of interest, such as inflammation or cardiovascular disease.

Beyond an analysis of different endpoints within a specific test system in a dedicated study, a transversal view of results obtained for one or similar test items for specific diseases and/or pathways across studies allows to assess the weight of evidence and the variability and heterogeneity of specific outcomes.

Direct quantitative comparisons may not be advisable across studies whose study design or power differ much, but effects relative to a similar control can be investigated.

The table below shows a selection of diseases relevant to smoke exposure, e.g., metabolic diseases (CVD, diabetes and liver diseases), respiratory diseases (COPD), periodontal diseases, and highlights biological pathways correlated with the development of these pathologies: inflammation, oxidative stress, xenobiotic metabolism, cellular and tissue damage.

In order to characterize each disease and/or pathway, different endpoints have been measured, as indicated in the last column. By clicking on the different Diseases/Biological Pathways name, you can access a dedicated page for each of them.

- (Epi)Genomics
- Transcriptomics
- Proteomics
- Lipidomics
- Histopathology
- Cell count
- Plaque formation
- Analytical chemistry
- Body weight
- Functional assay
- Questionnaire